Austria

Book Hotel

Book Rental Car

Cheap Flights

History

Language

Maps

Music

Recipes

Skiing

Towns and Cities
  Graz
  Innsbruck
  Linz
  Salzburg
  Vienna
  More Austrian Cities

Travel Guides

Weather

Links
   Austria Country Information
   Austrian Recipes
   Learn German Downloads
   Learn German eBooks
   Travel Downloads
   Travel eBooks
   Travel Magazines
   More Links


 















































 
Travel Guide 2   >   Europe   >   Austria   >   History

   
 

Austrian History


Austria can trace its history back to the dawn of civilization. In pre-Roman times, the country was occupied by various Celtic tribes including the Celtic kingdom of Noricum.

In Roman times, Noricum was annexed by the Romans and became a province of the Empire. In fact, most of what is now Austria (all parts to the South of the Danube River) were part of the Roman Empire.

When the Roman Empire collapsed in the 5th century, Austria was invaded by tribes of Bavarians, Avars and Slavs. Most of Austria was eventually conquered by the Charlemagne in 788, and eventually became part of Eastern Francia ("Francia Orientalis"), and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in 976.

The first reference to to the name "Österreich" comes from 996, where the term "OstarrÓchi" is used to refer to the Babenberg lands (also known as "marchia Orientalis").

Beginning in the 14th century, the Habsburgs began to gain more and more land around Austria. They also acquired more and more power in the Germany (which at that time fell within the Holy Roman Empire - after 1438, every single emperor but one, of the Holy Roman Empire, was a Habsburg). Eventually, through marriage, they also acquired Spain, Spanish lands in Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, and the New World. Additionally, their victories over the Ottoman Turks in 1526 at the Battle of Mohacs, and again in 1683 at the siege of Vienna, eventually brought Hungary and Bohemia (the area that is today the Czech Republic) under Habsburg control.

By the 18th century however, things had begun to change. The last Spanish Habsburg, Charles II, died childless in 1700, and rule of Spain passed to the Bourbon, Philippe of Anjou (King Philip V of Spain). Moreover, following the War of Austrian Succession (1740 to 1748), Prussia began to first match, and eventually displace, the Habsburg Empire as the dominant power in German affairs.

In 1804 the Austrian Empire (German: Kaisertum Österreich) was formed by Holy Roman emperor Francis II (who became Austrian emperor Franz I), although the Holy Roman Empire itself came to an end in 1806 as a result of the Napoleonic Wars. Despite many defeats at the hands of the French during the Napoleonic Wars, the Austrian Empire eventually emerged on the winning side, and played an important part in that victory, and ended up, together with Prussia, being a leading member of the German Confederation.

In 1864, Prussia and Austria cooperated in a war against Denmark in order to free the Dutchies of Schleswig and Holstein from the Danish Crown. However, following the war, the two countries could not agree on how these provinces hould be administered, and the Prussian-Austrian War of 1866 was a result. As a result of its defeat in this war, Austria had to leave the German Confederation, and end its participation in German politics.

In 1867, the Ausgleich ("Compromise") was signed by emperor Franz Joseph and a Hungarian delegation led by Ferenc Deák. The Ausgleich provided for a Hungarian government of near equal status to the Austrian government in Vienna, presided over by a single monarch (Franz Joseph) who had responsibility the military and foreign policy. This arrangement was known as the "dual monarch", and by this arrangement the Austrian Empire became the Austria-Hungary.

Austria-Hungary in 1900 CISLEITHANIA
1. Bohemia
2. Bukovina
3. Carinthia
4. Carniola
5. Dalmatia
6. Galicia
7. Kustenland
8. Lower Austria
9. Moravia
10. Salzburg
11. Silesia
12. Styria
13. Tirol
14. Upper Austria
15. Vorarlberg

TRANSLEITHANIA
16. Hungary
17. Croatia & Slavonia

18. BOSNIA & HERZEGOVINA

The 1914 assassination of the Austrian Archduke, Franz Ferdinand, in Sarajevo, was the trigger that led to World War I. Austria-Hungary was among the defeated Central Powers, and the Empire broke up along ethnic lines. The German speaking parts of the Empire became the Republic of German Austria (German: Republik Deutschösterreich), but the name was changed at the insistence of the Entente powers to the Republic of Austria (German: Republik Österreich). The new state was also forbidden to ever unite with Germany.

The First Austrian Republic came to an end in 1933, when the Chancellor, Engelbert Dollfuß, shut down parliament and established an authoritarian regime in an attempt to stabilize the country - paramilitary armies belonging to the Social Democrats and Conservatives were fighting each other on the streets, and a growing Nazi movement was advocating union with Germany.

Engelbert Dollfuß was assassinated in 1934, during an attempted Nazi coup, and succeeded by Kurt Schuschnigg. In 1938 however, German troops marched into Austria, and Adolf Hitler (who himself was Austrian) proclaimed the "Anschluss", the annexation of Austria into Greater Germany.

At the close of World War II, with the defeat of the Nazi regime, Austria, like Germany, was divided into American, British, French and Soviet Occupation Zones. However, just before the surrender, Austrian politican, Karl Renner, declared the separation of Austria from Germany, and set up a Provisional Government in Vienna. This government was in fact recognized by the Allies, and as a result, Austria was treated as the first victim of the Third Reich.

Allied Occupation Zones in Austria, 1945 to 1955

In 1955, as a result of the Austrian State Treaty (German: Österreichischer Staatsvertrag) , the country regained its independence. As part of the agreements surrounding this treaty, Austria became permanently neutral, a status which it maintains to this day.

Austria joined the European Union in 1995, and became part of the Eurozone which it was established in 1999.

Here are some books about the history of Austria:


Comments about Austrian History


Please share your comments about the history of Austria:

   


Books about Austrian History


Disclosure: Products details and descriptions provided by Amazon.com. Our company may receive a payment if you purchase products from them after following a link from this website.

Introducing Austria: A Short History. (Studies in Austrian Literature, Culture, and Thought)

By Lonnie Johnson

Brand: Ariadne Pr
Released: February 1st, 1989
Paperback (196 pages)

Introducing Austria: A Short History. (Studies in Austrian Literature, Culture, and Thought)
Lowest New Price: $14.95*
In Stock.*
*(As of 11:03 Pacific 23 Nov 2020 More Info)


Click Here
Description:
Introducing Austria: A Short History. (Studies in Austrian Literature, Culture, and Thought)
  • Manufacturer: Ariadne Pr
  • Brand: Brand: Ariadne Pr
  • ISBN: 0929497031
  • EAN: 9780929497037
Details:
  • Paperback
  • Number of Pages: 196
  • Author: Lonnie Johnson
  • Publication Date: February 1st, 1989
  • Release Date: February 1st, 1989
Physical Description:
  • Size: 8.75 Inches by 5.5 Inches by 0.5 Inches
  • Weight: 0.62611282408 Pounds
Features:
  • Used Book in Good Condition
Click here for more information

The Habsburg Empire: A New History

By Pieter M. Judson

Belknap Press
Released: October 1st, 2018
Paperback (592 pages)

The Habsburg Empire: A New History
List Price: $25.00*
Lowest New Price: $17.56*
In Stock.*
*(As of 11:03 Pacific 23 Nov 2020 More Info)


Click Here
Description:
The Habsburg Empire: A New History
  • Manufacturer: Belknap Press: An Imprint of Harvard University Press
  • Brand: Belknap Press
  • ISBN: 0674986768
  • EAN: 9780674986763
  • PartNumber: 51775926
Details:
  • Paperback
  • Format: Illustrated
  • Edition: Illustrated
  • Number of Pages: 592
  • Author: Pieter M. Judson
  • Publication Date: October 1st, 2018
  • Release Date: October 1st, 2018
Physical Description:
  • Size: 9.2 Inches by 6.1 Inches by 1.7 Inches
  • Weight: 1.45 Pounds
Click here for more information

A Concise History of Austria (Cambridge Concise Histories)

By Steven Beller

Cambridge University Press
Released: January 4th, 2007
Paperback (352 pages)

A Concise History of Austria (Cambridge Concise Histories)
List Price: $29.99*
Lowest New Price: $22.24*
In Stock.*
*(As of 11:03 Pacific 23 Nov 2020 More Info)


Click Here
Description:
A Concise History of Austria (Cambridge Concise Histories)
  • Manufacturer: Cambridge University Press
  • Brand: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBNs: 9780521478861, 0521478863
  • EAN: 9780521478861
  • PartNumber: 20868758
Details:
  • Paperback
  • Format: Illustrated
  • Edition: Illustrated
  • Number of Pages: 352
  • Author: Steven Beller
  • Publication Date: January 4th, 2007
  • Release Date: January 4th, 2007
Physical Description:
  • Size: 8.5 Inches by 5.43 Inches by 0.8 Inches
  • Weight: 1.07365121594 Pounds
Features:
  • Cambridge University Press
Click here for more information

The Marginal Revolutionaries: How Austrian Economists Fought the War of Ideas

By Janek Wasserman

Yale University Press
Released: October 20th, 2020
Paperback (368 pages)

The Marginal Revolutionaries: How Austrian Economists Fought the War of Ideas
Lowest New Price: $25.00*
In Stock.*
*(As of 11:03 Pacific 23 Nov 2020 More Info)


Click Here
Description:
The Marginal Revolutionaries: How Austrian Economists Fought the War of Ideas
  • Manufacturer: Yale University Press
  • Brand: Yale University Press
  • ISBN: 0300255403
  • EAN: 9780300255409
Details:
  • Paperback
  • Number of Pages: 368
  • Author: Janek Wasserman
  • Publication Date: October 20th, 2020
  • Release Date: October 20th, 2020
Physical Description:
  • Size: 8.9 Inches by 5.7 Inches by 0.7 Inches
  • Weight: 1.46827866492 Pounds
Click here for more information

The Habsburg Monarchy 1809-1918: A History of the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary by A J P Taylor (1990-09-27)

By A J P Taylor

Penguin
Paperback

The Habsburg Monarchy 1809-1918: A History of the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary by A J P Taylor (1990-09-27)
Lowest New Price: $24.09*
In Stock.*
*(As of 11:03 Pacific 23 Nov 2020 More Info)


Click Here
Description:
The Habsburg Monarchy 1809-1918: A History of the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary by A J P Taylor (1990-09-27)
  • Manufacturer: Penguin
  • PartNumber: 362291
Details:
  • Paperback
  • Author: A J P Taylor
Click here for more information

Austria - Culture Smart!: The Essential Guide to Customs & Culture

By Peter Gieler

Kuperard
Released: January 4th, 2018
Paperback (168 pages)

Austria - Culture Smart!: The Essential Guide to Customs & Culture
List Price: $11.99*
Lowest New Price: $11.37*
In Stock.*
*(As of 11:03 Pacific 23 Nov 2020 More Info)


Click Here
Description:
Austria - Culture Smart!: The Essential Guide to Customs & Culture
  • Manufacturer: Kuperard
  • Brand: Kuperard
  • ISBN: 1857338677
  • EAN: 9781857338676
  • PartNumber: unknown
Details:
  • Paperback
  • Edition: Second edition
  • Number of Pages: 168
  • Authors: Peter Gieler, Culture Smart!
  • Publication Date: January 4th, 2018
  • Release Date: January 4th, 2018
Physical Description:
  • Size: 6.75 Inches by 4.25 Inches by 0.5 Inches
  • Weight: 0.4 Pounds
Click here for more information

Franz Brentano and Austrian Philosophy (Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook, 24)

Springer
Released: December 25th, 2020
Hardcover (421 pages)

Franz Brentano and Austrian Philosophy (Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook, 24)
Lowest New Price: $139.99*
This title has not yet been released. You may pre-order it now and we will deliver it to you when it arrives.*
*(As of 11:03 Pacific 23 Nov 2020 More Info)


Click Here
Description:
Franz Brentano and Austrian Philosophy (Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook, 24)
  • Manufacturer: Springer
  • Brand: Springer
  • ISBN: 3030409465
  • EAN: 9783030409463
Details:
  • Hardcover
  • Edition: 1st ed. 2020
  • Number of Pages: 421
  • Publication Date: December 25th, 2020
  • Release Date: December 25th, 2020
Click here for more information

The End of the Habsburgs: The Decline and Fall of the Austrian Monarchy

By John Van Der Kiste

Fonthill Media
Released: February 11th, 2020
Hardcover (208 pages)

The End of the Habsburgs: The Decline and Fall of the Austrian Monarchy
List Price: $35.00*
Lowest New Price: $25.09*
In Stock.*
*(As of 11:03 Pacific 23 Nov 2020 More Info)


Click Here
Description:
The End of the Habsburgs: The Decline and Fall of the Austrian Monarchy
  • Manufacturer: Fonthill Media
  • Brand: Fonthill Media
  • ISBN: 1781557705
  • EAN: 9781781557709
Details:
  • Hardcover
  • Number of Pages: 208
  • Author: John Van Der Kiste
  • Publication Date: February 11th, 2020
  • Release Date: February 11th, 2020
Physical Description:
  • Size: 9.3 Inches by 6.4 Inches by 0.9 Inches
  • Weight: 0.97885244328 Pounds
Click here for more information

The Dollfuss/Schuschnigg Era in Austria: A Reassessment (Contemporary Austrian Studies)

By Anton Pelinka

Routledge
Released: January 31st, 2003
Paperback (331 pages)

The Dollfuss/Schuschnigg Era in Austria: A Reassessment (Contemporary Austrian Studies)
List Price: $59.95*
Lowest New Price: $48.01*
In Stock.*
*(As of 11:03 Pacific 23 Nov 2020 More Info)


Click Here
Description:
The Dollfuss/Schuschnigg Era in Austria: A Reassessment (Contemporary Austrian Studies)
  • Manufacturer: Routledge
  • Brand: Routledge
  • ISBN: 0765809702
  • EAN: 9780765809704
Details:
  • Paperback
  • Edition: 1
  • Number of Pages: 331
  • Author: Anton Pelinka
  • Publication Date: January 31st, 2003
  • Release Date: January 31st, 2003
Physical Description:
  • Size: 9.0 Inches by 6.0 Inches by 0.75 Inches
  • Weight: 1.25002102554 Pounds
Click here for more information

The Austrians: A Thousand-Year Odyssey

By Gordon Brook-Shepard

Basic Books
Released: December 23rd, 2002
Paperback (512 pages)

The Austrians: A Thousand-Year Odyssey
Lowest New Price: $24.99*
In Stock.*
*(As of 11:03 Pacific 23 Nov 2020 More Info)


Click Here
Description:
The Austrians: A Thousand-Year Odyssey
  • Manufacturer: Basic Books
  • Brand: Basic Books
  • ISBN: 0786711027
  • EAN: 9780786711024
  • PartNumber: illustrations
Details:
  • Paperback
  • Format: Illustrated
  • Number of Pages: 512
  • Author: Gordon Brook-Shepard
  • Publication Date: December 23rd, 2002
  • Release Date: December 23rd, 2002
Physical Description:
  • Size: 9.0 Inches by 6.0 Inches by 1.33 Inches
  • Weight: 1.60496526736 Pounds
Features:
  • Used Book in Good Condition
Click here for more information


 
 
 

 
 
Note: Our company does NOT provide travel, vacation, hotel, car rental services or associated products or services. Any links (including but not limited to banners, text links, or search forms) to such items on this web site are adverts from third parties. Sorry we can NOT answer questions about these types of products or services.

Unless specifically noted on the page in question, our company is NOT associated with attractions or places of interest that may be described on this website. In such cases, we have often provided links to the official sites where possible, or other third party sites containing useful information, purely as a courtesy and for informational purposes only.

All information about attractions, places of interest, travel destinations, travel services, etc., was believed to be correct at the time it was prepared, but may be change at any time. Readers are advised to check with their travel agent, travel provider, or the attraction operator, for current information.


Copyright © 2007-2020, Answers 2000 Limited

CERTAIN CONTENT THAT APPEARS ON THIS SITE COMES FROM AMAZON SERVICES LLC. THIS CONTENT IS PROVIDED 'AS IS' AND IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE OR REMOVAL AT ANY TIME.
CERTAIN CONTENT THAT APPEARS ON THIS SITE,COMES FROM AMAZON EU S.ŗ r.l. THIS CONTENT IS PROVIDED 'AS IS' AND IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE OR REMOVAL AT ANY TIME.

Disclosure: Our company's websites' content (including this website's content) includes advertisements for our own company's websites, products, and services, and for other organization's websites, products, and services. In the case of links to other organization's websites, our company may receive a payment, (1) if you purchase products or services, or (2) if you sign-up for third party offers, after following links from this website. Unless specifically otherwise stated, information about other organization's products and services, is based on information provided by that organization, the product/service vendor, and/or publicly available information - and should not be taken to mean that we have used the product/service in question. Additionally, our company's websites contain some adverts which we are paid to display, but whose content is not selected by us, such as Google AdSense ads. For more detailed information, please see Advertising/Endorsements Disclosures

In Association With Amazon.com
Answers 2000 Limited is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.
In Association With Amazon.co.uk
Answers 2000 Limited is a participant in the Amazon EU Associates Programme, an affiliate advertising programme designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.co.uk.
As an Amazon Associate, our company earns from qualifying purchases. Amazon, the Amazon logo, Endless, and the Endless logo are trademarks of Amazon.com, Inc. or its affiliates.



Our sites use cookies, some of which may already be set on your computer. Use of our site constitutes consent for this. For details, please see Privacy.

Click privacy for information about our company's privacy, data collection and data retention policies, and your rights.

Contact Us   Privacy   Terms of Use   Advertising/Endorsements Disclosures