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Travel Guide 2   >   Europe   >   Austria   >   History

   
 

Austrian History


Austria can trace its history back to the dawn of civilization. In pre-Roman times, the country was occupied by various Celtic tribes including the Celtic kingdom of Noricum.

In Roman times, Noricum was annexed by the Romans and became a province of the Empire. In fact, most of what is now Austria (all parts to the South of the Danube River) were part of the Roman Empire.

When the Roman Empire collapsed in the 5th century, Austria was invaded by tribes of Bavarians, Avars and Slavs. Most of Austria was eventually conquered by the Charlemagne in 788, and eventually became part of Eastern Francia ("Francia Orientalis"), and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in 976.

The first reference to to the name "Österreich" comes from 996, where the term "OstarrÓchi" is used to refer to the Babenberg lands (also known as "marchia Orientalis").

Beginning in the 14th century, the Habsburgs began to gain more and more land around Austria. They also acquired more and more power in the Germany (which at that time fell within the Holy Roman Empire - after 1438, every single emperor but one, of the Holy Roman Empire, was a Habsburg). Eventually, through marriage, they also acquired Spain, Spanish lands in Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, and the New World. Additionally, their victories over the Ottoman Turks in 1526 at the Battle of Mohacs, and again in 1683 at the siege of Vienna, eventually brought Hungary and Bohemia (the area that is today the Czech Republic) under Habsburg control.

By the 18th century however, things had begun to change. The last Spanish Habsburg, Charles II, died childless in 1700, and rule of Spain passed to the Bourbon, Philippe of Anjou (King Philip V of Spain). Moreover, following the War of Austrian Succession (1740 to 1748), Prussia began to first match, and eventually displace, the Habsburg Empire as the dominant power in German affairs.

In 1804 the Austrian Empire (German: Kaisertum Österreich) was formed by Holy Roman emperor Francis II (who became Austrian emperor Franz I), although the Holy Roman Empire itself came to an end in 1806 as a result of the Napoleonic Wars. Despite many defeats at the hands of the French during the Napoleonic Wars, the Austrian Empire eventually emerged on the winning side, and played an important part in that victory, and ended up, together with Prussia, being a leading member of the German Confederation.

In 1864, Prussia and Austria cooperated in a war against Denmark in order to free the Dutchies of Schleswig and Holstein from the Danish Crown. However, following the war, the two countries could not agree on how these provinces hould be administered, and the Prussian-Austrian War of 1866 was a result. As a result of its defeat in this war, Austria had to leave the German Confederation, and end its participation in German politics.

In 1867, the Ausgleich ("Compromise") was signed by emperor Franz Joseph and a Hungarian delegation led by Ferenc Deák. The Ausgleich provided for a Hungarian government of near equal status to the Austrian government in Vienna, presided over by a single monarch (Franz Joseph) who had responsibility the military and foreign policy. This arrangement was known as the "dual monarch", and by this arrangement the Austrian Empire became the Austria-Hungary.

Austria-Hungary in 1900 CISLEITHANIA
1. Bohemia
2. Bukovina
3. Carinthia
4. Carniola
5. Dalmatia
6. Galicia
7. Kustenland
8. Lower Austria
9. Moravia
10. Salzburg
11. Silesia
12. Styria
13. Tirol
14. Upper Austria
15. Vorarlberg

TRANSLEITHANIA
16. Hungary
17. Croatia & Slavonia

18. BOSNIA & HERZEGOVINA

The 1914 assassination of the Austrian Archduke, Franz Ferdinand, in Sarajevo, was the trigger that led to World War I. Austria-Hungary was among the defeated Central Powers, and the Empire broke up along ethnic lines. The German speaking parts of the Empire became the Republic of German Austria (German: Republik Deutschösterreich), but the name was changed at the insistence of the Entente powers to the Republic of Austria (German: Republik Österreich). The new state was also forbidden to ever unite with Germany.

The First Austrian Republic came to an end in 1933, when the Chancellor, Engelbert Dollfuß, shut down parliament and established an authoritarian regime in an attempt to stabilize the country - paramilitary armies belonging to the Social Democrats and Conservatives were fighting each other on the streets, and a growing Nazi movement was advocating union with Germany.

Engelbert Dollfuß was assassinated in 1934, during an attempted Nazi coup, and succeeded by Kurt Schuschnigg. In 1938 however, German troops marched into Austria, and Adolf Hitler (who himself was Austrian) proclaimed the "Anschluss", the annexation of Austria into Greater Germany.

At the close of World War II, with the defeat of the Nazi regime, Austria, like Germany, was divided into American, British, French and Soviet Occupation Zones. However, just before the surrender, Austrian politican, Karl Renner, declared the separation of Austria from Germany, and set up a Provisional Government in Vienna. This government was in fact recognized by the Allies, and as a result, Austria was treated as the first victim of the Third Reich.

Allied Occupation Zones in Austria, 1945 to 1955

In 1955, as a result of the Austrian State Treaty (German: Österreichischer Staatsvertrag) , the country regained its independence. As part of the agreements surrounding this treaty, Austria became permanently neutral, a status which it maintains to this day.

Austria joined the European Union in 1995, and became part of the Eurozone which it was established in 1999.

Here are some books about the history of Austria:


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Books about Austrian History


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Rethinking Black German Studies: Approaches, Interventions and Histories (Studies in Modern German and Austrian Literature)

Peter Lang Gmbh, Internationaler Verlag Der Wissenschaften
Released: October 4th, 2018
Hardcover (330 pages)

Rethinking Black German Studies: Approaches, Interventions and Histories (Studies in Modern German and Austrian Literature)
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Rethinking Black German Studies: Approaches, Interventions and Histories (Studies in Modern German and Austrian Literature)
  • Manufacturer: Peter Lang AG, Internationaler Verlag der Wissenschaften
  • Brand: Peter Lang Gmbh, Internationaler Verlag Der Wissenschaften
  • ISBN: 3034322259
  • EAN: 9783034322256
  • PartNumber: 45629861
Details:
  • Hardcover
  • Edition: New
  • Number of Pages: 330
  • Publication Date: October 4th, 2018
  • Release Date: October 4th, 2018
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  • Size: 8.9 Inches by 5.9 Inches by 1.0 Inches
  • Weight: 1.2235655541 Pounds
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The Marginal Revolutionaries: How Austrian Economists Fought the War of Ideas

By Janek Wasserman

Yale University Press
Released: September 24th, 2019
Hardcover (368 pages)

The Marginal Revolutionaries: How Austrian Economists Fought the War of Ideas
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The Marginal Revolutionaries: How Austrian Economists Fought the War of Ideas
  • Manufacturer: Yale University Press
  • ISBN: 0300228228
  • EAN: 9780300228229
  • PartNumber: unknown
Details:
  • Hardcover
  • Number of Pages: 368
  • Author: Janek Wasserman
  • Publication Date: September 24th, 2019
  • Release Date: September 24th, 2019
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  • Size: 9.2499815 Inches by 6.1247909 Inches by 0.999998 Inches
  • Weight: 1.45 Pounds
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The End of the Habsburgs: The Decline and Fall of the Austrian Monarchy

By John Van Der Kiste

Fonthill Media
Released: February 11th, 2020
Hardcover (208 pages)

The End of the Habsburgs: The Decline and Fall of the Austrian Monarchy
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The End of the Habsburgs: The Decline and Fall of the Austrian Monarchy
  • Manufacturer: Fonthill Media
  • Brand: Fonthill Media
  • ISBN: 1781557705
  • EAN: 9781781557709
Details:
  • Hardcover
  • Number of Pages: 208
  • Author: John Van Der Kiste
  • Publication Date: February 11th, 2020
  • Release Date: February 11th, 2020
Physical Description:
  • Size: 9.3 Inches by 6.4 Inches by 0.9 Inches
  • Weight: 0.97885244328 Pounds
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The World of Yesterday

By Stefan Zweig

University of Nebraska Press
Released: May 1st, 2013
Paperback (472 pages)

The World of Yesterday
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The World of Yesterday
  • Manufacturer: University of Nebraska Press
  • Brand: University of Nebraska Press
  • ISBN: 0803226616
  • EANs: 2015803226616, 8601420102323, 9780803226616
  • PartNumber: 9780803226616
Details:
  • Paperback
  • Format: Illustrated
  • Edition: Illustrated
  • Number of Pages: 472
  • Author: Stefan Zweig
  • Publication Date: May 1st, 2013
  • Release Date: May 1st, 2013
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  • Size: 8.46 Inches by 5.48 Inches by 1.0 Inches
  • Weight: 1.18 Pounds
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The Only Woman in the Room: A Novel

By Marie Benedict

Sourcebooks Landmark
Released: August 6th, 2019
Paperback (336 pages)

The Only Woman in the Room: A Novel
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  • Manufacturer: Sourcebooks Landmark
  • ISBN: 1492666890
  • UPC: 760789271717
  • EANs: 9781492666899, 0760789271717
  • PartNumber: unknown
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  • Paperback
  • Edition: Reprint
  • Number of Pages: 336
  • Author: Marie Benedict
  • Publication Date: August 6th, 2019
  • Release Date: August 6th, 2019
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  • Size: 8.25 Inches by 5.5 Inches by 1.5 Inches
  • Weight: 0.76 Pounds
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Habsburg Monarchy 1809 To 1918

By A J Taylor

Penguin UK
Released: September 4th, 1990
Paperback (304 pages)

Habsburg Monarchy 1809 To 1918
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Habsburg Monarchy 1809 To 1918
  • Manufacturer: Penguin UK
  • ISBN: 0140134980
  • EAN: 9780140134988
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  • Paperback
  • Format: International Edition
  • Number of Pages: 304
  • Author: A J Taylor
  • Publication Date: September 4th, 1990
  • Release Date: September 4th, 1990
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  • Size: 7.79526 Inches by 5.07873 Inches by 0.66929 Inches
  • Weight: 0.49383546688 Pounds
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  • Hapsburg
  • Holy Roman Empire
  • Austro-Hungarian
  • Europe
  • World War I
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More than Mere Spectacle: Coronations and Inaugurations in the Habsburg Monarchy during the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries (Austrian and Habsburg Studies (31))

Berghahn Books
Released: February 1st, 2021
Hardcover (414 pages)

More than Mere Spectacle: Coronations and Inaugurations in the Habsburg Monarchy during the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries (Austrian and Habsburg Studies (31))
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More than Mere Spectacle: Coronations and Inaugurations in the Habsburg Monarchy during the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries (Austrian and Habsburg Studies (31))
  • Manufacturer: Berghahn Books
  • Brand: Berghahn Books
  • ISBN: 1789208777
  • EAN: 9781789208771
Details:
  • Hardcover
  • Format: Download: Adobe Reader
  • Edition: 1
  • Number of Pages: 414
  • Publication Date: February 1st, 2021
  • Release Date: February 1st, 2021
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  • Size: 9.0 Inches by 6.0 Inches by 0.0 Inches
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Danubia: A Personal History of Habsburg Europe

By Simon Winder

Picador USA
Released: January 13th, 2015
Paperback (576 pages)

Danubia: A Personal History of Habsburg Europe
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Danubia: A Personal History of Habsburg Europe
  • Manufacturer: Picador
  • Brand: Picador USA
  • ISBN: 1250062020
  • EAN: 9781250062024
  • PartNumber: Illustrated
Details:
  • Paperback
  • Edition: Reprint
  • Number of Pages: 576
  • Author: Simon Winder
  • Publication Date: January 13th, 2015
  • Release Date: January 13th, 2015
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  • Size: 8.28 Inches by 5.3598318 Inches by 1.08 Inches
  • Weight: 0.9 Pounds
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  • Picador USA
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Exile Music: A Novel

By Jennifer Steil

Viking
Released: May 5th, 2020
Hardcover (432 pages)

Exile Music: A Novel
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Exile Music: A Novel
  • Manufacturer: Viking
  • ISBN: 0525561811
  • EAN: 9780525561811
Details:
  • Hardcover
  • Number of Pages: 432
  • Author: Jennifer Steil
  • Publication Date: May 5th, 2020
  • Release Date: May 5th, 2020
Physical Description:
  • Size: 9.25 Inches by 6.2 Inches by 1.4 Inches
  • Weight: 1.4 Pounds
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